These pages are dedicated to my mother, Wilhelmina Lefina Warokka, who has always been an enlighting example for all her children, grandchildren and people who knew her well.
My mother hails from the village Amurang in the Minahasa, where her father, Willem Henry Warokka, was the last hukum besar before the title was abolished when Indonesia became a Republic.
I have gathered much information from my parents about the Minahasa, which I have complemented with information from the internet, literature and friends who are knowledgeable about the Minahasa.
My many thanks go to the following contributors who helped provide information towards this project.
Eddy (Broeke) Tumengkol - Purnawirawan perwira tinggi TNI-AL
Dr. M. Sugandi-Ratulangi
Prof. Adrie B. Lapian
Where possible I quote my sources of information. Most (unless otherwise stated) stories are worded by myself in the English and Dutch language. I also provide the basic Indonesian language, but I have help from my wife , who does all major Indonesian language corrections.
If you have any questions or comments, or if you can provide additional information, please do not hesitate to .
Amsterdam, August 2004
Roderick C. Wahr
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